Branemark’s theory of osseointegration
Osseointegration can be defined as,
   1. Osseous integration, the apparent direct attachment or connection of osseous tissue to an inert alloplastic material without intervening connective tissue.
   2. The process and resultant apparent direct connection of the endogenous material surface and the host bone tissues without intervening connective tissue.
   3. The interface between alloplastic material and bone.

Weiss' theory of fibro-osseous integration
Weiss' theory states that there is a fibro-osseous ligament formed between the implant and the bone and this ligament can be considered as the equivalent of the periodontal ligament found in the gomphosis. He defends the presence of collagen fibres at the bone-implant interface. He interpreted it as the peri-implantal ligament with an osteogenic effect. He advocates the early loading of the implant.

Osseointegration versus Biointegration
In 1985, Dr. C. de Putter proposed two ways of implant anchorage or retention as mechanical and bioactive. Mechanical retention can be achieved in cases where the implant material is a metal, for example, commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys. In these cases, topological features like vents, slots, dimples, threads (screws), etc. aid in the retention of the implant. There is no chemical bonding and the retention depends on the surface area: the greater the surface area, the greater the contact.
Bioactive retention can be achieved in cases where the implant is coated with bioactive materials such as hydroxyapatite. These bioactive materials stimulate bone formation leading to a physico-chemical bond. The implant is ankylosed with the bone.


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